The widespread use of Emails (electronic mail) and SMS (short message service) has given opportunity to cyber criminals to defraud unsuspecting users with various techniques of Email and SMS phishing and spoofing.
In September 2013, the CryptoLocker, a form of Malware was discovered. CryptoLocker encrypts the files on users hard drive then prompts them to pay a ransom in order to receive the decryption key. This "ransomware" infects computers through programs and zip files attached to credible-looking emails, taking files and images hostage. Hundreds of thousands of businesses and individuals were affected and victims had 72 hours to pay up or face the keys that would unlock their files being destroyed.